Citation: Dharmasiri, A.S. & Jayakody, G.H.,(2021). A study of strategic sourcing and strategic supporting of virtual teams. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 86(2),45-53; http://doi.org/10.52770/TSHJ7374
The number of virtual teams has increased in recent years due to globalization of business, advanced information and communication technology and increased need for innovation and competitiveness. In this article, two different virtual team arrangements that are successful in meeting their current competitive needs are reported. Data collected using in-depth interviews were analyzed and several key patterns that support strategic sourcing and strategic supporting emerged. Accordingly, the organization with “virtual teams in an organization (VTO)”structure indicated support for strategic supporting whereas the organization with “Organization as Virtual Teams (OVT)” structure indicated patterns that support strategic sourcing. The authors envisage that there is an opportunity for HRM to leverage on strategic opportunities when overlap of VTO and OVT structures is considered.
Adamovic, M. (2017). An employee-focused human resource management perspective for the management of global virtual teams. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(14), 2159–2187. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2017.1323227
Anawati, D., & Craig, A. (2006). Behavioral adaptation within cross-cultural virtual teams. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 49(1), 44–56. https://doi.org/10.1109/tpc.2006.870459
Arnison, L., & Miller, P. (2002). Virtual teams: A virtue for the conventional team. Journal of Workplace Learning, 14(4), 166–173. https://doi.org/10.1108/13665620210427294
Baur, J. E., Buckley, M. R., Bagdasarov, Z., & Dharmasiri, A. S. (2014). A historical approach to realistic job previews: An exploration into their origins, evolution, and recommendations for the future. Journal of Management History, 20(2), 200–223. https://doi.org/10.1108/jmh-06-2012-0046
BECKER, B. E., & GERHART, B. (1996). The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: Progress and prospects. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 779–801. https://doi.org/10.2307/256712
Bennett, E. E. (2014). Introducing new perspectives on virtual human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 16(3), 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422314532091
Bergiel, B. J., Bergiel, E. B., & Balsmeier, P. W. (2008). Nature of virtual teams: A summary of their advantages and disadvantages. Management Research News, 31(2), 99–110. https://doi.org/10.1108/01409170810846821
Burn, J., & Barnett, M. (1999). Communicating for advantage in the virtual organization. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 42(4), 215–222. https://doi.org/10.1109/47.807959
Butler, C. L., Minbaeva, D., Mäkelä, K., Maloney, M. M., Nardon, L., Paunova, M., & Zimmermann, A. (2018). Towards a strategic understanding of global teams and their HR implications: An expert dialogue. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(14), 2209–2229. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2018.1428720
Canney Davison, S. (1994). Creating a high performance international team. Journal of Management Development, 13(2), 81–90. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621719410050200
Chadwick, C., & Cappelli, P. (1999). Alternatives to generic strategy typologies in strategic human resource management. In G. Ferris (Ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (pp. 11–29). Emerald.
Cohen, L., & El-Sawad, A. (2007). Lived experiences of offshoring: An examination of UK and Indian financial service employees’ accounts of themselves and one another. Human Relations, 60(8), 1235–1262. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726707081662
Collings, D. G., & Mellahi, K. (2009). Strategic talent management: A review and research agenda. Human Resource Management Review, 19(4), 304–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.04.001
Collings, D., Wood, G. T., & Caligiuri, P. M. (2015). The Routledge companion to international human resource management. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315761282
Cross, R., Gray, P., Cunningham, S., Showers, M., & Thomas, R. (2011). The collaborative organization: How to make employee networks really work. MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(1), 83–90. https://doi.org/10.1109/emr.2011.5729974
Cummings, J., & Pletcher, C. (2011). Why project networks beat project teams. MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(3), 75–80.
Davis, D. D., & Bryant, J. L. (2003). Influence at a distance: Leadership in global virtual teams. Advances in Global Leadership, 3, 303–340. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1535-1203(02)03015-0
Dharmasiri, A. S. (2013). Strategic orientation of HR managers: A South Asian perspective. South Asian Journal of Management, 20(2), 7–39.
Earley, C. P., & Mosakowski, E. (2000). Creating hybrid team cultures: An empirical test of transnational team functioning. Academy of Management Journal, 43(1), 26–49. https://doi.org/10.5465/1556384
Germain, M.-L., & McGuire, D. (2014). The role of swift trust in virtual teams and implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 16(3), 335–370. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422314532097
Harvey, M., Novicevic, M. M., & Garrison, G. (2004). Challenges to staffing global virtual teams. Human Resource Management Review, 14(3), 275–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2004.06.005
Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 635–672. https://doi.org/10.2307/256741
Huselid, M. A., Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S. (1997). Technical and strategic human resources management effectiveness as determinants of firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 171–188. https://doi.org/10.5465/257025
Kankanhalli, A., Tan, B., & Wei, K.-K. (2007). Conflict and performance in global virtual teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 23(3), 237–274. https://doi.org/10.2753/nus0742-1222230309
Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (1999). The human resource architecture: Toward a theory of human capital allocation and development. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 31–48. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1999.1580439
Levina, N., & Vaast, E. (2008). Innovating or doing as told? Status differences and overlapping boundaries in offshore collaboration. MIS Quarterly, 32(2). https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1136880
Maister, D. H., Green, C. H., & Galford, R. M. (2002). The trusted advisor. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Maloney, M. M., Bresman, H., Zellmer-Bruhn, M. E., & Beaver, G. R. (2016). Contextualization and context theorizing in teams research: A look back and a path forward. The Academy of Management Annals, 10(1), 891–942. https://doi.org/10.1080/19416520.2016.1161964
Martins, L. L., Gilson, L. L., & Maynard, M. T. (2004). Virtual teams: What do we know and where do we go from here? Journal of Management, 30(6), 805–835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2004.05.002
Mcgrath, J. E. (1991). Time, interaction, and performance (TIP). Small Group Research, 22(2), 147–174. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496491222001
Metiu, A. (2006). Owning the code: Status closure in distributed groups. Organization Science, 17(4), 418–435. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1060.0195
Mockaitis, A. I., Zander, L., & De Cieri, H. (2018). The benefits of global teams for international organizations: HR implications. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(14), 2137–2158. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2018.1428722
Nardon, L. (2017). Working in a multicultural world: A guide to developing intercultural competence. Toronto: University Of Toronto Press. https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442625006
Oertig, M., & Buergi, T. (2006). The challenges of managing cross‐cultural virtual project teams. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 12(1/2), 23–30. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527590610652774
Pauleen, D. J., & Yoong, P. (2001). Relationship building and the use of ICT in boundary-crossing virtual teams: A facilitator’s perspective. Journal of Information Technology, 16(4), 205–220. https://doi.org/10.1080/02683960110100391
Prasad, K., & Akhilesh, K. B. (2002). Global virtual teams: What impacts their design and performance? Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 8(5/6), 102–112. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527590210442212
Robinson-Easley, C. (2014). Beyond diversity and intercultural management. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137400864
Schuler, R. S., & Jackson, S. E. (1987). Organizational strategy and organization level as determinants of human resource management practices. Human Resource Planning, 10(3), 125–142.
Townsend, A. M., DeMarie, S. M., & Hendrickson, A. R. (1998). Virtual teams: Technology and the workplace of the future. Academy of Management Perspectives, 12(3), 17–29. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.1998.1109047
Tung, R. L. (2016). New perspectives on human resource management in a global context. Journal of World Business, 51(1), 142–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2015.10.004
Wright, P. M., & McMahan, G. C. (1992). Theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management. Journal of Management, 18(2), 295–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639201800205
Wright, P. M., & Sherman, W. S. (1999). Failing to find fit in strategic human resource management: Theoretical and empirical problems. In G. Ferris (Ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (pp. 53–74). Emerald.
Zimmermann, A., & Ravishankar, M. N. (2014). Knowledge transfer in IT offshoring relationships: The roles of social capital, efficacy and outcome expectations. Information Systems Journal, 24(2), 167–202. https://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12027
Zimmermann, A., & Ravishankar, M. N. (2016). A systems perspective on offshoring strategy and motivational drivers amongst onshore and offshore employees. Journal of World Business, 51(4), 548–567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2016.01.005